Holistic approach

Key learning outcomes

  • Identify the different types of direct control
  • Identify the use cases for each type of direct control
  • Understand the limitations of erach type of direct control


Direct control encompasses a wide array of tools including mechanical control, biocontrol, herbicides and Harvest Weed Seed Capture (HWSC) approaches. In this module you will be introduced to all of these, and learn how they can be compatible to deliver effective weed control.

Training session

Chemical methods of weed control

This is a presentation developed by Philippe Delval, ACTA, France. The video is about 10 minutes 35 seconds long. Additional notes, comments and links to additional content are given below the presentation.

Music by Lesfm from Pixabay

Comments, notes and resources referenced in the video





Holistic approach tries to understand the functioning of the studied cropping system as a set of elements interacting with each other, in its environment.

Elements = techniques, bio-physical environment and farm resources.

The cropping system = the way of producing at the level of a field.

The production system, defined at the farm level, may include one or more interacting cropping and livestock systems.


The decision-making system represents the way in which farmers integrate technical interventions, from the field to the farm. It is defined as the combination of objectives, strategies, decision rules and indicators to plan and evaluate the technical system.

The technical system corresponds to all the techniques implemented, the consistency of which can only be understood by referring to its relationship with the decision-making system and the biophysical system.


Balance = According to social demand

To create = Can help identify solutions for mitigating the consequences of fragmentation restoration of landscape quality


    Plant protection should be an important element in agricultural planning through a multidimensional, interdisciplinary approach

    The ESR model can contribute to this, because it makes it possible to include a social vision of agriculture through a holistic approach.


E = Efficiency of chemical measures

S = Pesticide substitution by non-chemical methods

R = Redesign of the production system


The PIC principles are fully in line with this ESR concept

Efficiency : Treatment at the right time (taking into account humidity and wind conditions) and at the optimal dose, possible use of tools from precision agriculture

Substitution : Use of hardy varieties multi-resistant to diseases or tolerant to water deficit, biological or mechanical control of pests

Redesign of the production system: Diversification of rotations, adaptation of the cultivation route, reduction of "operational" working time and deconstruction of processing habits with the redefinition of "levels of tolerance" to damage and damage.


Farmers co-construct a whole set of agronomic practices, at the level of Cropping Systems, resulting in a coherent “decision-making scheme” tested on their farm. These changes are part of the logic of each operation and a global approach. Monitoring makes it possible to assess these changes in technical, health, economic, social and environmental terms. Then, these references are then widely disseminated.

The concept of decision-making system

The model or decisive system corresponds to all the elements of the technical reasoning of the experimenter or the farmer who, confronted with the environment, the vagaries of the climate, the pressure variations of pests, determines the cropping system.

This sequence of action principles can be represented in the form of a decision-making diagram which conventionally comprises the following elements:

- objectives and expected results: level of control targeted for each type of pest, level of tolerance to the presence of pests and their effects

- an explanation of the management strategy (management measures, decision rules controlling the adaptation of technical decisions in relation to the forecast route depending on the climate, the condition of the cultivated plots, etc.)

These concepts are used in DEPHY EXPE and DEPHY FERME to facilitate the presentation of the culture system experienced.

Picture = Example of a theoretical decision-making scheme (representation of the succession of crops for crop cropping systems, and of the succession of stages for perennial crops)


Valuation and new questions = The experiment can lead to:

Interesting results with the aim of dissemination in the field

The raising of new questions that require the implementation of a new experiment


New advisers

The aims of New Advisers, funded by Leonardo da Vinci and involving eight countries and two transnational adviser networks, was to define and transfer some effective methods for advisers and trainers for use in agronomy, particularly concerning pesticides.


ENDURE IPM Training Guide

The content of ENDURE's IPM Training Guide fits in with the concept of IPM as a systems approach and allows users to adapt ENDURE's outputs to their plant protection systems as they evolve to meet national IPM targets.



IWMPRAISE Inspiration Sheets : Three IS describe the integrated weed management strategies on perennial crops (olive orchards in Spain or vineyards in UK).

The most important management options for olive orchards in Spain 

Olive-cultivation systems in Spain 

Weeding strategies for vineyards 


IWMPRAISE Inspiration Sheets : Three IS describes integrated weed management strategies on specific problems in arable crops in France.

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) control 

Managing weeds without glyphosate

Trials without glyphosate: some results